CONDITIONAL SENTENCES - TRƯỜNG THPT LỘC PHÁT

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CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

Thứ ba - 06/11/2018 06:30
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
Type 1: Diễn tả những sự việc, điều kiện có thể xảy ra được ở hiện tại và tương lai. (Future Real Condition).
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

1. TYPES OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

- Type 1: Diễn tả những sự việc, điều kiện có thể xảy ra được ở hiện tại và tương lai.    (Future Real Condition)

- Type 2: Diễn tả những sự việc, điều kiện không có thật hay không thể xảy ra được ở hiện tại và tương lai.   (Present Unreal Condition).

- Type 3: Diễn tả những sự việc, điều kiện không có thật hay không thể xảy ra được ở quá khứ.   (Past Unreal Condition)


TYPE

IF – CLAUSE

MAIN CLAUSE

1

Present:                S + V-s/es + ….

S + will/can/may + V ….                    

2

Past subjunctive:  S + V-ed/were

S + would/could/might + V …..

3

Past perfect:         S + had + V3/ed

S + would/could/might + have + V3/ed

Type 1: E.g: If I find her address, I will send her an invitation.

      If Mary doesn’t feel better tomorrow, she will see a doctor.

 

Type 2: E.g: If I were you, I would tell the truth.

      If she knew your address, she would send you a letter.

 

Type 3: E.g If I had known the answer, I would have told her.

Had I known the answer, I would have told her.

      would have gotten the scholarship if I had studied harder.

Had I studied harder, I would have gotten the scholarship

* Note : Ngoài ra còn có sự kết hợp giữa câu đk loại 2 và 3 tùy theo thời của V trong các mệnh đề gốc

+ If – clause ở loại 3, Main - Clause ở loại 2

E.g: You worked too hard yesterday, so you are tired now.

→ If you hadn’t worked too hard yesterday, you wouldn’t be tired now.


2. UNLESS = IF … NOT ( Trừ phi, nếu …không)

E.g: If you don’t study more, you will get bad marks.  → Unless ……………………………………

* Note: Khi chuyển 1 câu đk dùng If thành câu đk dùng Unless, ta cần chú ý:

+ If – Clause ở thể phủ định thì chuyển thành khẳng định. Main – Clause không biến đổi.

+ If – Clause ở thể khẳng định thì ta chỉ việc thay If = Unless, và biến đổi Main – Clause thành thể ngược lại.

Ex: If we don’t protect the animals, they will die out.  

→ Unless we protect the animals, they will die out.  


3. WISH (ước)/IF ONLY(giá mà)

3.1) Không có thật ở hiện tại: S + wish + S + V2/ed/WERE

- I wish Peter were here now. (He isn’t here now.)

- If only I had more money.

3.2) Không có thật ở tương lai: S + wish + S + WOULD + V

- She wishes Tom would be here tomorrow.

- If only Tom would be here tomorrow.

3.3) Không có thật ở quá khứ: S + wish + S + HAD + V3/ed

- We wish she had passed her exam last year.

- If only you hadn’t told Peter about our plan.


Exercise 1: Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form:

  1. If I see him, I _____ (give ) him a gift.

  2. If I had a typewriter, I _____ (type) it myself.

  3. If I had known that you were in hospital, I _____ (visit) you.

  4. You could make better progress if you _____ (attend) class regularly.

  5. If I _____ (know) his telephone number, I’d give it to you.

  6. If you _____ (arrive) ten minutes earlier, you would have got a seat.

  7. If he worked more slowly, he _____ (not make) so many mistakes.

  8. I shouldn’t drink that wine if I _____ (be) you.

  9. If I _____ (find) a cheap room, I will stay a fortnight.

  10. A lot of people _____ (be) out of work if the factory closed down.

Exercise 2: Make conditional sentences:

  1. Keep silent or you’ll wake the baby up. → If ……………………………………………..…..………

  2. Stop talking or you won’t understand the lesson.→ If …………………………………….....….…….

  3. I don’t know her number, so I don’t ring her up.→ If …………………………………….....….……..

  4. I don’t know the answer, so I can’t tell you.→ If …………………………………………….………..

5.  I can't look the word up because I haven't got a dictionary.

→ If ……………………………………………..…..………

6. We don't visit our parents very often because they live so far away.

→ If ……………………………………………..…..………

7. We got lost because we didn’t have a map.→ If …………………………………….……..…….……

8. Susan felt sick because she ate four cream cakes. →……………………………………………..……

9. Without this treatment, the patient would have died. →……………………………………….….…...

10. He lost his job because he was late every day. →………………………………………………...……

  1. Peter is fat because he eats so many chips. →……………………………………………………...…..

  2. Robert got a bad cough because he started smoking cigarettes. →………………………………..…..

Exercise 3: Use UNLESS instead of IF

Eg: If you do not study hard, you will fail the exam. → Unless you study hard , you will fail the exam.

  1. If you do not like this one, I’ll bring you another . → Unless………….……………………

  1. If she does not hurry, she’ll be late → Unless ……………………………………………….

  1. If you are not careful, you’ll cut yourself → Unless …………………………………………

  2. If you had not sneezed, he wouldn’t have known that we were there.

→ Unless ……………………………………………………………………………..………   

Exercise 4: Make conditional sentences    

  1. I didn’t eat lunch, I feel hungry now. → If I…………..…………………………………….

  2. I only come if they invite me. → Unless…………………………………………………….

  3. He didn’t revise all his lessons, he failed the exam. → If he…………………………………

  4. The park is over there, only 5 minutes’ walk. → If you walk………………………………

  5. Leave me alone or I’ll call the police. →Unless………………………………………………

  6. She got married at such an early age: otherwise, she would be at university now.

→ If ……………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. The children don’t go to school in the snowy weather. → If it ………………………………

  2. He had breakfast so early; he is hungry now. → If  ……………………………………………

  3. The car breaks down so often because you don’t take good care of it.

→ If ………………………………………………………………………………………..………

  1. He is very bad-tempered, that’s why his wife left him soon after marriage.

→ If he……………………………………………………………………….……………………

11. If we had more rain, our crops would be better. → Had …………………………………………

12. If she did her hair differently, she would look quite nice. → Had …………………………………

13. Because of the heavy rain, they came to the theater late. → If ……………………………………

14. Because of her sickness, she was absent. → If ……………………………………………………

15. I think you should inform the police  → If I ……………………………………………….………

Exercise 5:  Find out the mistakes:

1. If you don’t try your best, you would fail the next exam.

                    A B            C D

2. Unless you do all of the exercises given by the teacher, you won’t be punished.

                       A             B C                D

3. She had had more good marks if she had prepared the lesson carefully.

              A        B       C     D  

4. If your mother bought you a dictionary, you can learn English better.

                                A B        C D

5. If yesterday I stayed at home, I would not be tired today.

             A B                            C D

6. Unless they come early, they would meet him at the meeting.

                                   A B C              D

Exercise 6: Choose the best answer for each of the following sentences.

1. If Margaret hadn’t had a seat belt, she …. injured.    A. has been B. would has been C. would be D. would have been

2. If I _____ the rain yesterday, I_____ ill.

A. had not caught / would have been B. had not caught / would have not been

C. have not caught / were not D. have not caught / would have been

3. If I _____ my wallet at home this morning, I _____ money for lunch now.

A. leave / will have B. didn’t leave / would have

C. hadn’t left / would have D. hadn’t left / would have had

4. It is too bad, Lam isn’t here. If he _____ here, he _____ what to do.

A. were / would know B. is / will know C. had been / would have known D. was / would know

5. If we _____ the plans carefully, we would not have had so many serious mistakes.

A. study B. had studied C. studied D. were studying

6. Hurry up _____ you will miss the bus and be late for school.       A. if     B. and C. or  D. as

7. You will get a good seat if you _____ first.

A. come B. came C. have come D. will come

8. Sam will not graduate_____.

A. if he passed all the tests B. if he does not pass all the tests.

C. unless he passes all the tests D. unless he had passed all the tests.


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